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Laser Cutting

Laser Cutting

The material to be cut is irradiated with a high-power density laser beam to quickly heat the material to vaporization temperature and evaporate to form a hole. As the beam moves on the material, the hole continuously forms a narrow slit to complete the cutting of the material.

Principle: Laser cutting is to irradiate the workpiece with a focused high-power density laser beam to quickly melt, vaporize, ablate or reach the ignition point of the irradiated material. At the same time, the molten material is blown away by the high-speed airflow coaxial with the beam to achieve the The workpiece is cut open. Laser cutting is one of the thermal cutting methods.

Classification

Laser vaporization cutting: Use a high-energy density laser beam to heat the workpiece, so that the temperature rises rapidly, reaching the boiling point of the material in a very short time, and the material begins to vaporize to form vapor. The jetting speed of these vapors is very high, and at the same time as the vapor jets, cuts are formed in the material. The heat of vaporization of materials is generally very large, so a lot of power and power density are required for laser vaporization and cutting.

Laser melting and cutting: When laser melting and cutting, the metal material is melted by laser heating, and then non-oxidizing gas (Ar, He, N, etc.) is sprayed through the nozzle coaxial with the beam, and the liquid metal is discharged by the strong pressure of the gas. Make an incision. Laser melting and cutting do not need to vaporize the metal completely, and the energy required is only 1/10 of that of vaporized cutting. Laser melting cutting is mainly used for cutting some materials that are not easy to oxidize or active metals, such as stainless steel, titanium, aluminum and their alloys.

Laser oxygen cutting: The principle of laser oxygen cutting is similar to oxyacetylene cutting. It uses a laser as a preheating heat source and an active gas such as oxygen as the cutting gas. On the one hand, the blown gas reacts with the cutting metal to cause oxidation reaction and release a large amount of oxidation heat; on the other hand, the molten oxide and melt are blown out of the reaction zone to form an incision in the metal. Since the oxidation reaction in the cutting process generates a lot of heat, the energy required for laser oxygen cutting is only 1/2 of the melting cutting, and the cutting speed is much faster than laser vaporization cutting and melting cutting. Laser oxygen cutting is mainly used for easily oxidized metal materials such as carbon steel, titanium steel and heat-treated steel.

Laser scribing and controlled fracture: Laser scribing uses a high-energy density laser to scan the surface of brittle materials, so that the material is heated to evaporate a small groove, and then a certain pressure is applied, and the brittle material will crack along the small groove. . The lasers used for laser scribing are generally Q-switched lasers and CO2 lasers. Controlled fracture is the use of the steep temperature distribution generated when the laser groove is carved, which generates local thermal stress in the brittle material, causing the material to break along the small groove.

Advantage:
  • Small tolerance,
  • Smooth surface,
  • High efficiency,
  • High speed,
  • Environmental protection
Cutting material:

Steel: When oxygen is used as the processing gas, the cutting edge will be slightly oxidized. For plates with a thickness of 4mm, nitrogen can be used as a processing gas for high-pressure cutting. In this case, the cutting edge will not be oxidized. For plates with a thickness of more than 10mm, using a special pole plate for the laser and oiling the surface of the workpiece during processing can achieve better results.

Stainless steel: Oxygen can be used when oxidation of the cutting end surface is acceptable; nitrogen is used to obtain an oxidation-free and burr-free edge, and no further treatment is required. Coating the oil film on the surface of the plate will get better perforation effect without reducing the processing quality.

Aluminum: Despite its high reflectivity and thermal conductivity, aluminum with a thickness of 6mm or less can be cut, depending on the alloy type and laser capabilities. When cutting with oxygen, the cutting surface is rough and hard. When using nitrogen, the cutting surface is smooth. Pure aluminum is very difficult to cut because of its high purity. Aluminum can only be cut when a “reflection absorption” device is installed on the system. Otherwise, the reflection will destroy the optical components.

Copper: Both materials have high reflectivity and very good thermal conductivity. Brass with thickness less than 1mm can be cut with nitrogen; copper with thickness less than 2mm can be cut, and the processing gas must be oxygen. Copper and brass can only be cut when a “reflection absorption” device is installed on the system. Otherwise, the reflection will destroy the optical components.

Leading metal stamping manufacturer

Leading metal stamping manufacturer

Established in 2005, Tenral Metal Products company began to manufacture simple metal stamping parts. With reliable quality and professional technology, our service range has been expanding. Today, we have 3 production workshops equipped with nearly 100 types of production equipment, covering an area of more than 70,000 square feet, with nearly 100 employees, and we have an in-house tool workshop that specializes in the production of complex and precise stamping dies and welding fixtures. Bending tools, etc.

Tenral’s main service is metal stamping. Supporting services include CNC machining, laser cutting, bending, spinning, deep drawing, welding, and other surface processing. In recent years, we have continued to invest in new production equipment and strive to provide customers with a full range of metal manufacturing solutions.

TenraL has been designing and manufacturing various complex and precise metal parts for many industries, such as automotive, lighting, plumbing and HVAC, energy, furniture, ships, home appliances, electrical, agriculture, entertainment, and industrial equipment. We use the industry’s most advanced innovative equipment and knowledgeable personnel to provide services for these different market sectors.

In the automotive field, Tenral has been providing precise and complex stamping parts for auto parts to original manufacturers of auto parts. From simple brackets to complex parts, you can find the best solution in our company. We understand the strict tolerances required by the automotive industry and are committed to providing reliable metal stamping parts for various automotive systems.

Due to the non-disclosure agreement, most products cannot be displayed.

 

Do you really understand CNC machining?

CNC machining is the most widely used subtractive manufacturing technology. In CNC, various cutting tools are used to remove material from solid blocks, and parts are produced based on CAD models. Both metal and plastic can be processed by CNC.

How does CNC machining work? There are two main types of CNC machining systems: milling and turning. Due to its unique characteristics, each type is more suitable for manufacturing different geometric shapes. This is the schematic diagram of milling.

A typical milled part is manufactured by removing material from a rectangular blank.

Turning is the installation of parts on a rotating chuck and the use of fixed cutting tools to remove material. In this way, a symmetrical part along its central axis can be manufactured. The production of turned parts is usually faster (and lower cost) than milled parts.

A typical CNC turned part is made by removing material from a cylindrical blank. Turning systems (also called lathes) are used to manufacture parts with cylindrical contours. Non-cylindrical parts can be manufactured using a modern multi-axis CNC turning center, which is also equipped with CNC milling tools.

Not all complex parts can be processed by CNC. Although CNC machining provides great design freedom, not every geometry can be CNC machined. Unlike 3D printing, the complexity of parts increases costs because more manufacturing steps are required. The traditional 3-axis system will not work because of the limit, but the 5-axis CNC system allows the cutting tool to enter the area that the 3-axis system cannot reach.

Sheet metal processing technology

What are sheet metal parts? Sheet metal parts are parts produced by a comprehensive cold working process for metal sheets (usually less than 6mm), including shearing, punching/cutting/compounding, folding, welding, riveting, splicing, and forming.

1. Cutting

The equipment of the cutting process is a shearing machine, which can cut a sheet of metal sheet into basic shapes. Advantages: low processing cost; Disadvantages: general accuracy, cutting with burrs, cutting shapes are simple rectangles or other simple straight lines Composition of graphics.

The unfolded size of the part must be calculated before the cutting process. The unfolded size is related to the bending radius, bending angle, sheet material, and sheet thickness.

 

2. Punching

The equipment of the punching process is a punching machine, which can further process the cut material into shape. Stamping various shapes requires different molds. Common molds have round holes, long round holes, and bosses; the accuracy is higher.

Boss: The material is not removed. Note that the height of the boss is limited, which is related to the material of the board, the thickness of the board, and the angle of the slope of the boss.

There are many types of bosses, including heat dissipation holes, mounting holes, etc. Due to the influence of bending, the distance between the edge of the design hole and the edge of the plate and the bending edge will be restricted.

3. Laser cutting

Processing equipment: laser cutting machine

For materials that cannot be removed by cutting or punching processes, or plates that are harder to damage the mold, such as rounded corners, or when there is no ready-made mold to punch the required shape, laser cutting can be used to complete the material before bending. Molding

Advantages: cutting without burrs, high precision, can cut any graphics, such as leaves, flowers, etc.; Disadvantages: high process cost.

4. Bending

Processing equipment: bending machine

They can bend or roll the metal sheet into the required shape, which is the forming process of parts; the process of cold pressing the metal sheet by the upper and lower knives of the bending machine to deform the metal sheet to obtain the required shape is called bending.

 

Stamping characteristics of commonly used materials stainless steel

Due to its unique characteristics, stainless steel is not only beautiful in appearance, but also has strong plasticity and high corrosion resistance, which is deeply loved by users.

  1. The yield point is high, the hardness is high, and the cold work hardening effect is significant. However, it is prone to cracking.
  2. The thermal conductivity is worse than that of ordinary carbon steel, resulting in large deformation force, large blanking force and deep drawing force.
  3. The plastic deformation force is large when it is stretched, and it is easy to wrinkle and break when the material is too thin.
  4. The phenomenon of sticking mold and shape strain is easy to occur when stretching.
  5. Because of its high hardness and high corrosivity, it is often used as some structural parts, exterior parts and outdoor parts.

Selection of automotive stamping die materials

Due to the different functions of various parts in the mold, the requirements for the materials and the principles of selection are also different. Therefore, reasonable selection of mold materials is also an important task in die design, which has a great impact on the cost and production quality of the mold.

Generally speaking, automotive stamping die materials need to meet the following conditions:

  1. For automobile stamping dies with simple shapes and small sizes, the use of commonly used carbon tool steel materials such as T8A and T10A can meet production requirements.
  2. For automobile stamping dies with complex shapes and larger sizes, alloy tool steels or high-speed tool steels, such as Cr12, Cr12MoV, W18Cr4V, W6MoS, Cr4V2, etc., are often used as stamping die materials.
  3. Some automobile molds require high stamping accuracy and service life, so cemented carbide or steel-bonded cemented carbide is commonly used as raw materials, such as YG15, YG20, GW50, etc.
  4. There are many large parts in automobile stamping dies, which are usually made of ordinary cast iron or cast carbon steel, such as gray cast iron HT250, cast steel 2G270-500, etc., and some molds will also be hardened by surfacing on the cutting edge.

There are many types of automobile stamping dies. In addition to the material selection of the main working dies, we must also pay attention to the materials of guide posts and guide sets. Generally, low-carbon steel or bearing steel of high-quality carbon steel can meet the production and Quenching demand.

In general, automobile stamping die manufacturing to go through the following processes, that is forging, cutting and heat treatment. In order to ensure the manufacturing quality of the die and reduce the production cost, the material should have excellent malleability, machinability, hardenability, hardenability, grindability and decarburization sensitivity, so the material selection of automobile die is important and strict.

 

Sheet metal materials and sheet metal processing experience

  1. Definition of sheet metal: cold working of sheet metal
    Metal: steel, aluminum, copper, etc.
    Sheet: 6mm ‘or less
    Cold working: cutting / punching / cutting / folding
  2. Uses of sheet metal
    Manufacturing cabinets, car shells, support parts, and general metal appearance parts are all used for sheet metal materials.
  3. Commonly used materials for sheet metal
  •  Cold rolled sheet
    Specification range: thickness 0.25 ~ 3.0mm, materials above 3.0mm must be customized.
    1220mm and 1250 mm specifications, the length can be cut to any size as required. Generally it is 2440mm and 2500mm.
    Material characteristics: The surface is iron gray luster, and the surface is easy to be scratched and rusted. Care must be taken during processing to quickly reverse the order.
  • Hot rolled plate
    Specification range: thickness 1.4 ~ 6.0mm, maximum width 1524mm, generally
    1250mm or 1220mm, the material length can be cut to any size as required. Generally it is 2500mm or 2440mm.
    Material characteristics: The surface of the material is black and gray, which is not easy to be scratched, but easy to rust. It must be removed during processing. Suitable for structural parts such as baking paint and dusting.
  • Stainless steel
    General term for stainless acid-resistant steel that is resistant to atmospheric, acid, alkali, salt and other media. To achieve stainless and corrosion resistance, there are many types due to different alloy types and contents. Stainless steel features: good corrosion resistance, good brightness, high strength; a certain degree of elasticity; the surface treatment is mainly because the surface quality of the plate is sometimes not high after treatment (such as drawing) can improve the surface quality. Our company usually uses sus201 SUS304 and SUS316.
  • Galvanized sheet
    Galvanized sheet is galvanized on the surface of q235, so the name is galvanized sheet.
    Thickness specification 0.3 ~ 3.0mm, surface zinc flower types are: normal zinc flower (Z) light zinc flower (G), small zinc flower (X), light zinc flower (GX) zero zinc flower (N), zinc Ferroalloy (R).
  • Aluminum plate
    As the aluminum material for the plate, there are mainly the following two types, namely industrial pure aluminum and rust-proof aluminum. These two materials have high plasticity, good weldability, high corrosion resistance, but poor cutting ability.
    The aluminum content of industrial pure aluminum is greater than 99.00%, and usually has the following grades: 1050, 1060, 1070, 1100, 1200. The plate specifications are mostly 1250X2500 or 1000X2000. The thickness is from 0.3-7.0mm.

Sheet metal processingCutting: CNC punch, ordinary punch, LASER cutting machine, etc. Laser cutting: Fiber cutting gas cutting (cost calculated along the meter) is not suitable for cutting reflective materials. The film on the mirror panel must be removed during laser cutting, and the film must be attached when bending. Need to dot plasma cutting plasma cutting: cheap, suitable for cutting thick plates, conductive, there will be bevels, low precision can cut round tubes, small plasma cutting machine, easy to carry flame cutting, acetylene, cutting thick plates, laser small waterjet, Some materials are not suitable for thermal cutting.

How was the car made?

The stamping production process is a process of stamping a steel plate into a car body, that is, a body cover and a structural part. Stamping is a traditional material forming process. With the development of the automotive industry, stamping process is widely used in manufacturing. The stamping process greatly improves the accuracy and efficiency of material molding. Take the automotive industry as an example, stamping can punch a part every 5s, and the accuracy of the parts can generally reach more than 95%.

The development of stamping technology depends on the advancement of mold technology. Since the 1960s, computer technology has improved and its application in the manufacturing industry. CAD, CAE, CAM and other computer-aided systems, automotive mold development and manufacturing efficiency have greatly improved The machining accuracy of the large 5-axis machining center reaches 0.01mm, and the servo press also brings great convenience to mold debugging and part molding.

The stamping process of automobile parts generally includes four processes: drawing process, trimming process, punching process and flanging process. Each process corresponds to a set of molds. Sometimes in order to save costs, a set of molds is made for the subsequent trimming and punching processes and compressed into three steps.

The stamping process of automobile enterprises is basically similar, but the stamping technology of different materials is different. At present, under the background of automobile lightweight, aluminum body is used by more and more automobile enterprises. Due to the difference of material properties between aluminum and steel, aluminum body has some technical difficulties in stamping, and the manufacture of automobile mould also needs different surface treatment.